Rules on Preposition

Definition: Preposition shows the time, space, location, direction or logical relationship between a noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence.

Prepositions that usually stand in front of nouns show the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and some other word in the rest of the sentence.

 List of Prepositions: about(সম্পর্কে), above(উপরে), across(জুড়ে), afterপরে, againstবিরুদ্ধে, alongবরাবর, amongমধ্যে, aroundপ্রায়,, at প্রতি, beforeআগে, behindপেছন, belowনিচে, besideপাশে, betweenমধ্যে, beyond বাহিরে, byদ্বারা, except ছাড়া , forজন্য, fromথেকে, inমধ্যেlikeমত, near কাছাকাছি , ofএর, off দূরে /হইতে, on উপরonto সম্মুখের দিকেout ofবাহিরে,  outsideবাহিরেoverউপর, regarding বিষয়ে, since থেকে, thanচেয়ে, throughমাধ্যমে, tillপর্যন্ত, to প্রতি, towardদিকেtowardsদিকেthroughout সর্বত্রব্যাপী, underনীচেunderneath অধীনে, unlikeঅসদৃশuntilযতক্ষণ না পর্যন্ত, up উপর, uponউপরwithসঙ্গে, withinমধ্যেwithoutছাড়া

 Look at the following chart

1.      Place/positionat, about, above, across, against, among, before, behind, below, between, by, down, in, inside, of, on, over, under, upon, with, within, near
2.      Timeat, after, before, by, during, from, for, in, on, since, till, until, within, throughout
3.      Direction/movementat , away, from, across, down, for, from, into, off, over, out of, round, to, towards, up
4.      Agency/instrumentat, by, with, through, from
5.      Reason/purposefor, from, of, through, to, with
6.      Possessionof, with
7.      Standard/rate/value/speedat, by
8.      Otherexcept, as/like, without, than, unlike

Classification of Preposition

ClassificationExample
1.      Simple Prepositionin, on, at, about, over, under, off, of, for, to etc.
2.      Double Prepositionwithin (with+in), into (in+to) outside of, out of, from behind, from beneath
3.      Compound Prepositionacross=on+cross, behind=by+hind, without=with+out, within =with+in, inside=in+side, beneath=by+neath, outside=out+side, into=in+to, along = on+long, by+side=beside, by+fore=before, by+tween=between, by+yond=beyond, on+by+out=about, below,  etc.
4.      Phrase Prepositionin front of, because of, by means of, with regard to, on behalf of, instead of, on account of, in opposition to, for the sake of etc.
5.      participle Prepositionaccording, regarding, concerning, notwithstanding, pending, considering
6.      Disguised PrepositionIt is 10 O’ clock. (O’ = of), I go a hunting. (a = on), He was standing a side of her. (on=a),  She comes here once a/per week. (on =a/per)

 Rules of Preposition

EnglishUsageExample
Ondays of the week/dateson Monday, on the 14th day of June
attachedthe picture on the wall
for a place with a riverLondon lies on the Thames.
being on a surfaceon the table
for a certain side (left, right)on the left
for a floor in a houseon the first floor
for public transport, television, radioon the bus, on a plane , on TV, on the radio
walking or riding on horsebackon foot, on horseback
entering a public transport vehicleget on the bus
to indicate a part of the bodyon my shoulder, on my cheek, on my finger
to indicate the state of somethingthis store is on sale, on fire
Inbig placeIn Dhaka
picture, worldin the picture, in the world
months / seasonsin August / in winter
time of dayin the morning
yearin 2006
after a certain period of timein an hour
entering a car / Taxiget in the car
room, building, street, town, countryin the kitchen, in London
book, paper etc.in the book
car, taxiin the car, in a taxi
Atfor nightat night
for weekendat the weekend
a certain point of timeat half past nine
to indicate a placeat Mirpur, at the park, at the stadium
meaning next to, by an objectat the door, at the station
for tableat the table
for eventsat a concert, at the party
places to do something typicalat the cinema, at school, at work
for ageShe learned Russian at 45.
Totelling the timeten to six (5:50)
movement to person or buildinggo to the cinema
movement to a place or countrygo to London/ Ireland
for bedgo to bed
Byin the sense of at the latestI will be back by 6 o’clock.
up to a certain timeBy 11 o’clock, I read five pages.
who made ita book by Mark Twain
rise or fall of something, travellingprices risen by 10 percent by car, by bus
Overcovered by something elseput a jacket over your shirt
meaning more thanover 16 years of age
getting to the other sidewalk over the bridge
overcoming an obstacleclimb over the wall
Ofwho/ what does it belong toa page of the book
what does it showthe picture of a palace
raceHe comes of respectable family.
toIt is the car of my uncle.
instrumentThe house is made of brick.
lackHe is devoid of courtesy.
causeHe died of heart attack.

Some confusing preposition

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1. রাস্তার নামসহ বাসার নম্বরের আগে at ব্যবহূত হয় কিন্তু শুধু রাস্তার নাম বোঝালে in ব্যবহূত হয়

যেমন: We live at 89 Mirpur Road, Dhaka. They opened an office at 29 Central Road. We live in Mirpur Road, Dhaka. They have opened an office in Central Road.

2. বাড়ির সামনে বা পেছনে বোঝালে at বসে কিন্তু যানবাহনের সামনে বা পেছনে বোঝালে in ব্যবহূত হয় যেমন: There is a garden at the front of our house and a pond at the back of our house. Please sit in the front of the car; don’t sit in the back.

3. শুধু রাত বোঝালে at ব্যবহূত হয় কিন্তু গভীর রাত বোঝালে in ব্যবহূত হয়

যেমন: We work by day but sleep at night. I woke up in the night.

4. স্থায়ী কোনো কাজের সঙ্গে যুক্ত থাকা বোঝাতে at এবং স্থায়ী কোনো কাজের সঙ্গে যুক্ত থাকা বোঝাতে in ব্যবহূত হয়

যেমন: They are at work now. Boys are at play now. He is in army. She is in politics.

5. খামার বোঝালে on এবং কারখানা বোঝালে তার আগে in ব্যবহূত হয়

যেমন: He works on a farm; but his brother works in a factory.

6. হাতলবিহীন চেয়ার বোঝালে on এবং হাতলবিশিষ্ট চেয়ার হলে তার আগে in ব্যবহূত হয়

যেমন: Don’t sit on that chair, it is broken. Please sit in this armchair, Comilla stands on the Dhaka- Chittagong Highway. We live in Rankin Street in Dhaka.

7. ঘরের কোণ বোঝালে in বসে কিন্তু রাস্তার কোণ বোঝালে on/at ব্যবহূত হয় যেমন:

There is a television in the corner of our drawing room. There is a tea-stall at/ on the corner of the street.

8.তাপমাত্রা  উচ্চতার ক্ষেত্রে above ব্যবহূত হয় আবার বয়স বোঝালে over ব্যবহূত হয়

যেমন: The temperature is three degree above zero.The summit of Everest is about 8000 metres above the sea level. My grandfather is now over eighty. She has been here over two hours.

9.নদীসীমানারাস্তাইত্যাদি অন্য পাশে বোঝাতে across/ over ব্যবহূত হয়

যেমন: It is just across/over the border. It was coming towards me across/ over the bridge.

10. নির্দিষ্ট সময়ে শুরু বোঝালে Since বসে কিন্তু সময়ের সমষ্টি বোঝালে for বসে since ব্যবহূত হয় শুধু Perfect Tense-এর ক্ষেত্রে কিন্তু from ব্যবহৃত হয় সব Tense-এর ক্ষেত্রে He has been there since Friday last. I will be at home from tomorrow. I haven’t seen you for a long time. I haven’t seen you since September. I Just want to sit down for five minutes. I have known her since January, 1980. He has been here since Friday last. I have been waiting here since 6 o’clock. I was waiting here from 6 o’clock. He was fond of music from his childhood.

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 Exercises on Preposition

He came–7 o’clock. He will start–the lunch. They came–Monday. Mehenaj will return–dinner. It has been raining–a week. It has been raining–Monday. He will come–7 o’clock. Rifa will come–8 o’ clock. Kamrul is– home. I am–my class. He has no roof–his head. There is an umbrella–my head. There is a cap–his head. The thief stood–the judge. He is sitting–a tree. He stood–the station. A beggar is standing–the door. He is above me — rank. He climbed–a tree. He is going–school. He fired–the enemy. He is kind–the poor. There is unity–the boys. There is a village–the hills. There is friendship–Kamal and Jamil. Switzerland lies–France and Germany. He is going–market. She was going to hospital–treatment. They are coming–school. I had a phone call–my cousin. Translate–English. Love turned–hatred. Ice melts–water. Speak clearly–the microphone. He bought a pen–Mohan. He has started–Chittagong. He died–his country. He lives–others. It is a poem–Nazrul. This road runs–Dhaka to Sylhet. I borrowed a book–the library. Leaves are falling–the tree. He is–duty now. He is away–home. The dog jumped–the chair. This chair is made–wood. Steel is made–iron. We make butter–milk. He came here–car. This play was written–Minhaj. He speaks–English. The house was destroyed–fire. We see–our eyes. We can’t see–eyes. My uncle died–cholera. He died –loss of blood. He is trembling–fear. He will suffer–his bad habits. Rice sells–taka 25 a kilo. It is ten–my watch. She is rather tall–her age. She is good at figure. My mother is good–cooking. He is clever–games. I played–my friends. He came–his umbrella. I stand–my friend. He is–the judgment. I am reading a book–English grammar. I told him–my school. Write a paragraph–your school. He is careless–his health. Rihat came home–nine o’clock. The birds start chirping–dawn. I usually get up–6 o’clock. He goes to school–10 am. I could not sleep–midnight. He will come–8:30 pm. I will see you–the end of January. My father will go to London–the beginning of March. Please phone me–lunch time. He will come there–dinner time. He lives–Dhanmondi. I arrived–Kamalapur station–7 o’clock. He waited–the bus stop for over twenty minutes. There were many people–the party. The principal delivered his speech–the meeting. He met Rahat–the concert. He was shocked–his father’s sudden death. He was upset–his failure in the examination. I was delighted–my son’s success. He was alarmed–the news. Rima is good–Mathematics. Lotus is good–typing. He left school–the age of 15. Rice sells–taka 30 a kilo. I was born–March. Our house was built–the 19th century. He learnt driving–three months. He will leave–home in a few hours. I usually get up–bed early in the morning. He plays football– his friends–the evening. He lives–a tent. I live–a room. Don’t play–the class. Don’t shout—the classroom. He lives –a village in France but my uncle lives–London. Everest is the highest mountain– the world. I was–a hospital last year. He wrote an article–the daily Ittefaq. There is a misprint–the line on page 6. We went to a party– Easter Sunday. Come and see us–Christmas day. I have got a meeting–Monday morning. He is now talking–phone. Is there anything good–the television tonight? In England we drive–the left side of the road and not on the right side. He lives in a flat–the third floor. He sat on the bench–a park. Keep the book –the table. Don’t write anything–the wall/–the front page. This is a book–grammar. He drew a dagger–him. He smiled on her. He came here–the occasion–my birthday. I have no money on me–this moment. Dhaka stands–the bank of the Buriganga. There are trees on either side–this canal. On your advice, I applied–the job. He was arrested on a charge–theft. He has done it–my word. I am going–Sylhet–bus. She earns a lot–catching and selling fish. He amuses himself– drawing cartoons. He gets his salary–cheque. We buy bananas–the dozen. She is an Indian–birth. She is an Italian–marriage. She is a politician–profession. He can finish his work–4 pm. He ought to get back–tomorrow. Let us go out–a walk. He is learning English — pleasure. This is a train–Jhenaidah. They are passengers–Sylhet. I bought this Saree–Tk. 7255. She has a taste–classical music. He has a liking–tasty dishes. They are dancing–joy. He got a prize–his bravery. The road went on for miles–miles. I have been waiting–the train for about hours. I will be with you–an hour or so. I bought sweets–my children. Have you made a cup of tea–me? The girl is short– her age. The weather is hot–November. We wear new dresses–Eid-Ul-Fitr. He drew a dagger–him. He smiled–her. He came here–the occasions of my birthday. I have no money on me–this moment. Tomorrow I will fly– Dhaka–Delhi. She is on leave–15 January. He lived–Jhenaidah from 1985 to 1995. This gentleman is–Vienna. This is a letter–my friend. This is a quotation–the Hamlet. Dhaka is more than two hundred kilometers– Jhenaidah.  He is suffering–fever. He is a cousin–mine. She is a friend–Rani. He is man–letters. Mr. Khan is a man –parts. The key–this lock is missing. The brake–this car is weak. Rajib is a member–this club. Mini is a student–this school. They died–cholera. She is proud–her noble birth. This is a house–stone. This window is made–galss. He comes–a respectable family. Mr. Minaj Uddin is–man of Jhenaidah. He is the president–the club. Mr. Mashrur Shahid Hossain is a professor–Jahangirnagar University. It is kind–you to help me. It is nice–you to have called me. She has gone–a walk–her child. He is living–his aunt. He is a boy–blue eyes. This is a house–a garden. Remove the lid–an opener. We can cut cloth–scissors. He is angry–me. The old man was shivering–cold. He is now–an insurance company. I am satisfied–my result. Mrs. Rehana is pleased–her son. He is senior–me in age. We won by six goals– three. He invited me–a party. We went out–lunch. She will go home the day–tomorrow. Dhaka was named Jahangirnagar–the name of Emperor Jahangir. We suffer day –day. He was married– his will.  I am–this proposal.  We were rowing–the current.  He put a ladder–the tree last night. He was leaning– a wall. The salaries here are low –the rates elsewhere. There were fifty murders this year–a hundred last year. He is careless–his duties. I know everything–Kamal. They are–to start. She is–to die. There are–five thousand people in our village. He will get back–lunch. He arrived here–me. A comes–B in the alphabet. He was brought–the judge. The accident took place—me.

Answer:
He came at 7 o’clock. He will start after the lunch. They came on Monday. Mehenaj will return after dinner. It has been raining for a week. It has been raining since Monday. He will come at 7 o’clock. Rifa will come at 8 o’clock. Kamrul is at home. I am in my class. He has no roof over his head. There is an umbrella over my head. There is a cap on his head. The thief stood before the judge. He is sitting under a tree. He stood at the station. A beggar is standing at the door. He is above me in rank. He climbed up a tree. He is going to school. He fired at the enemy. He is kind to the poor. There is unity among the boys. There is a village in the hills. There is friendship between Kamal and Jamil. Switzerland lies between France and Germany. He is going to the market. She was going to the hospital for treatment. They are coming from school. I had a phone call from my cousin. Translate into English. Love turned into hatred. Ice melts into water. Speak clearly into the microphone. He bought a pen from Mohan. He has started for Chittagong. He died for his country. He lives among others. It is a poem by Nazrul. This road runs from Dhaka to Sylhet. I borrowed a book from the library. Leaves are falling from the tree. He is on duty now. He is away from home. The dog jumped onto the chair. This chair is made of wood. Steel is made from iron. We make butter from milk. He came here by car. This play was written by Minhaj. He speaks in English. The house was destroyed by fire. We see with our eyes. We can’t see without eyes. My uncle died of cholera. He died from the loss of blood. He is trembling with fear. He will suffer from his bad habits. Rice sells for 25 taka a kilo. It is ten past my watch. She is rather tall for her age. She is good at figure skating. My mother is good at cooking. He is clever at games. I played with my friends. He came with his umbrella. I stand by my friend. He is under the judgment. I am reading a book on English grammar. I told him about my school. Write a paragraph about your school. He is careless about his health. Rihat came home at nine o’clock. The birds start chirping at dawn. I usually get up at 6 o’clock. He goes to school at 10 am. I could not sleep until midnight. He will come at 8:30 pm. I will see you by the end of January. My father will go to London at the beginning of March. Please phone me at lunchtime. He will come there at dinnertime. He lives in Dhanmondi. I arrived at Kamalapur station at 7 o’clock. He waited at the bus stop for over twenty minutes. There were many people at the party. The principal delivered his speech at the meeting. He met Rahat at the concert. He was shocked by his father’s sudden death. He was upset by his failure in the examination. I was delighted by my son’s success. He was alarmed by the news. Rima is good at Mathematics. Lotus is good at typing. He left school at the age of 15. Rice sells for 30 taka a kilo. I was born in March. Our house was built in the 19th century. He learned driving in three months. He will leave home in a few hours. I usually get up from bed early in the morning. He plays football with his friends in the evening. He lives in a tent. I live in a room. Don’t play in the class. Don’t shout in the classroom. He lives in a village in France, but my uncle lives in London. Everest is the highest mountain in the world. I was in a hospital last year. He wrote an article for the daily Ittefaq. There is a misprint on the line on page 6. We went to a party on Easter Sunday. Come and see us on Christmas day. I have got a meeting on Monday morning. He is now talking on the phone. Is there anything good on the television tonight? In England, we drive on the left side of the road and not on the right side. He lives in a flat on the third floor. He sat on the bench in the park. Keep the book on the table. Don’t write anything on the wall/on the front page. This is a book on grammar. He drew a dagger on him. He smiled at her. He came here on the occasion of my birthday. I have no money on me at this moment. Dhaka stands on the bank of the Buriganga. There are trees on either side of this canal. On your advice, I applied for the job. He was arrested on a charge of theft. He has done it on my word. I am going to Sylhet by bus. She earns a lot by catching and selling fish. He amuses himself by drawing cartoons. He gets his salary by cheque. We buy bananas by the dozen. She is an Indian by birth. She is an Italian by marriage. She is a politician by profession. He can finish his work by 4 pm. He ought to get back by tomorrow. Let us go out for a walk. He is learning English with pleasure. This is a train to Jhenaidah. They are passengers for Sylhet. I bought this Saree for Tk. 7255. She has a taste for classical music. He has a liking for tasty dishes. They are dancing for joy. He got a prize for his bravery. The road went on for miles and miles. I have been waiting for the train for about hours. I will be with you in an hour or so. I bought sweets for my children. Have you made a cup of tea for me? The girl is short for her age. The weather is hot in November. We wear new dresses on Eid-Ul-Fitr. He drew a dagger on him. He smiled at her. He came here on the occasions of my birthday. I have no money on me at this moment. Tomorrow I will fly from Dhaka to Delhi. She is on leave until 15 January. He lived in Jhenaidah from 1985 to 1995. This gentleman is from Vienna. This is a letter from my friend. This is a quotation from the Hamlet. Dhaka is more than two hundred kilometers from Jhenaidah. He is suffering from fever. He is a cousin of mine. She is a friend of Rani. He is a man of letters. Mr. Khan is a man of parts. The key to this lock is missing. The brake of this car is weak. Rajib is a member of this club. Mini is a student of this school. They died of cholera. She is proud of her noble birth. This is a house of stone. This window is made of glass. He comes from a respectable family. Mr. Minaj Uddin is a man of Jhenaidah. He is the president of the club. Mr. Mashrur Shahid Hossain is a professor at Jahangirnagar University. It is kind of you to help me. It is nice of you to have called me. She has gone for a walk with her child. He is living with his aunt. He is a boy with blue eyes. This is a house with a garden. Remove the lid with an opener. We can cut cloth with scissors. He is angry with me. The old man was shivering from cold. He is now working for an insurance company. I am satisfied with my result. Mrs. Rehana is pleased with her son. He is senior to me in age. We won by six goals to three. He invited me to a party. We went out for lunch. She will go home the day after tomorrow. Dhaka was named Jahangirnagar after the name of Emperor Jahangir. We suffer day by day. He was married according to his will. I am in favor of this proposal. We were rowing against the current. He put a ladder against the tree last night. He was leaning against a wall. The salaries here are low compared to the rates elsewhere. There were fifty murders this year as opposed to a hundred last year. He is careless with his duties. I know everything about Kamal. They are about to start. She is about to die. There are about five thousand people in our village. He will get back after lunch. He arrived here before me. A comes before B in the alphabet. He was brought before the judge. The accident took place near me