Summarize the following text. 10

Unit-3 : Lesson-3

1. … (T)he Negro is still not free. … the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. … (T)he Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty of the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. … (T)he Negro is still languishing in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. So we have come here today to dramatize a shameful condition ….

I say you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.

I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal.”

I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.

I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.

I have a dream today.

Summary: Martin Luther King Jr. laments the ongoing segregation and discrimination against African Americans, feeling they are exiled in their own land. Despite these challenges, he envisions a nation embodying the true creed of equality. He dreams of Georgia as a land of brotherhood and Mississippi as an oasis of freedom and justice. He hopes for a future where individuals are judged by their character, not the color of their skin. King’s vision is one of unity and fairness for all.

2. Unit-1, Lesson-1

My brothers, The Assembly has been called into session on the 25th of March. But the blood spilled on our streets has not yet dried. About the 10th of this month, I have told them: Mujibur Rahman won’t join the Round Table Conference because that would mean wading over the blood that has been shed. Although you have called the Assembly into session, you’ll have to listen to my demands first.

You’ll have to withdraw Martial Law. You’ll have to return all army personnel to their barracks. You’ll have to investigate the way our people have been murdered. And you’ll have to transfer power to the representatives of the people. It is only then that I’ll decide whether we will take our seats in the Assembly or not. I don’t want the Prime Minister’s office. We want the people of this country to have their rights. I want to state clearly that from this day Bangladesh’s courts, magistracies, government offices and educational institutions will be shut down indefinitely.

Remember: since we have already had to shed blood, we’ll have to shed a lot more of it; by the Grace of God, however, we’ll be able to liberate the people of this land. The struggle this time is a struggle for freedom-the struggle this time is a struggle for emancipation. Long live Bengal!

Summary: My brothers, the Assembly is set to convene on March 25th, but blood has recently been spilled in our streets. On March 10th, I told them Mujibur Rahman would not attend the Round Table Conference due to this violence. Before any Assembly meeting, several demands must be met: Martial Law must be withdrawn, army personnel must return to their barracks, the killings of our people must be investigated, and power must be transferred to the people’s representatives. We seek not the Prime Minister’s office but the rights of our people, and thus, Bangladesh’s institutions will shut down indefinitely. Our struggle is for freedom and emancipation, and despite the bloodshed, we will ultimately liberate our land. Long live Bengal!

3. Unit-3, Lesson-1

Dreams have fascinated philosophers for thousands of years, but only recently have dreams been subjected to empirical research and scientific study. Chances are that you’ve often found yourself puzzling over the content of a dream, or perhaps you’ve wondered why you dream at all.

First, let’s start by answering a basic question: What is a dream? A dream can include any of the images, thoughts and emotions that are experienced during sleep. Dreams can be extraordinarily vivid or very vague; filled with joyful emotions or frightening images; focused and understandable or unclear and confusing. Why do we dream? What purpose do dreams serve? While many theories have been proposed, no consensus has emerged.

Considering the time we spend in a dreaming state, the fact that researchers do not yet understand the purpose of dreams may seem baffling. However, it is important to consider that science is still unraveling the exact purpose and function of sleep itself. Some researchers suggest that dreams serve no real purpose, while others believe that dreaming is essential to mental, emotional and physical well-being.

Summary: Dreams have intrigued philosophers for millennia, but only recently have they been studied scientifically. You might often puzzle over the content of your dreams or wonder why you dream at all. A dream includes any images, thoughts, and emotions experienced during sleep, varying from vivid and joyful to vague and frightening. The purpose of dreams remains unclear, with many theories but no consensus. While some researchers believe dreams serve no real purpose, others argue they are crucial for mental, emotional, and physical well-being.

4. Unit-6, Lesson-2

Adolescents constitute a nation’s core resource for national renewal and growth. Adolescence is a period in life when transtition from childhood to adulthood takes place and behaviours and lifestyles are shaped. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), adolescence is the period which shapes the future of girls and boys’ lives.

There are 28 million adolescents in Bangladesh; 13.7 million of them are girls and 14.3 million boys.
The situation of adolescent girls in Bangladesh is marginalization by inequality and subordination within the family and society. This inequality leads to widespread practice of child marriage, marginalization or exclusion from health, education and economic opportunities, and vulnerability to violence and sexual abuse.

In Bangladesh, the legal age of marriage is 18 for girls and 21 for boys. However, 33 Percent of adolescent girls are married before the age of 15 and 60 become mothers by the age of 19. Research finds that adolescents with higher level of education and from more affluent families tend to marry at a later age. Boys, however, become ready for marriage only after several years of adolescence and young adulthood.

Summary: Adolescents are essential for a nation’s growth and renewal, marking the transition from childhood to adulthood where behaviors and lifestyles are formed. In Bangladesh, there are 28 million adolescents, with 13.7 million girls and 14.3 million boys. Adolescent girls face significant marginalization and inequality, leading to issues such as child marriage, limited access to health, education, and economic opportunities, and vulnerability to violence. Despite the legal marriage age being 18 for girls, 33% marry before 15, and 60% become mothers by 19. Research indicates that higher education and affluence delay marriage for girls, while boys typically marry later after adolescence.

5. Unit 5, Lesson 1

Sheikh Kamal, the eldest son of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Bangamata Fazilatunnesa Mujib, was born in Tungipara, Gopalganj. He received his secondary education at Dhaka’s BAF Shaheen School and later attended Dhaka College, where he pursued his higher studies in the Department of Sociology at Dhaka University. Beyond his academic pursuits, Sheikh Kamal led a vibrant and creative life, actively participating in sports and cultural activities.

He was an accomplished basketball and cricket player, earning a reputation as a sports organizer. Additionally, he had a keen interest in classical music, learning to play the Sitar under the guidance of Ustad Ful Mohammad at Chhayanaut. He also had a passion for the Piano and maintained a collection of musical instruments in his home at Dhanmondi, Road no. 32.

Sheikh Kamal was known for his disciplined routine, often beginning his day by practicing the Sitar. He was involved in sports like basketball, football, and cricket, and he dedicated his evenings to rehearsing plays, such as his participation in the stage performance of “Kabar” written by renowned playwright Shaheed Munir Chowdhary. He co-founded Dhaka Theatre and played a role in founding Spondon Shilpi Gosthi, a cultural organization. He is also remembered for founding Abahoni Krira Chokro, which introduced modern football to the country.

Sheikh Kamal’s life was marked by a passionate pursuit of sports, culture, and the arts, leaving a lasting impact on various facets of Bangladeshi society.

Summary: Sheikh Kamal, the eldest son of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Bangamata Fazilatunnesa Mujib, was born in Tungipara and educated in Dhaka, where he studied sociology at Dhaka University. He led a vibrant life, excelling in sports like basketball and cricket, and engaging deeply in cultural activities such as playing the Sitar and the Piano. Known for his disciplined routine, he began his days with Sitar practice and spent evenings rehearsing plays, including “Kabar.” Sheikh Kamal co-founded Dhaka Theatre and Spondon Shilpi Gosthi, and founded Abahoni Krira Chokro, which modernized football in Bangladesh. His contributions to sports, culture, and the arts left a significant impact on Bangladeshi society.

6. Beauty is easy to appreciate but difficult to define. As we look around, we discover beauty in pleasurable objects and sights in nature, in the laughter of children, in the kindness of strangers. But asked to define, we run into difficulties. Does beauty have an independent objective identity? Is it universal, or is it dependent on our sense perceptions? Does it lie in the eye of the beholder? We ask ourselves. A further difficulty arises when beauty manifests itself not only by its presence, but by its absence as well, as when we are repulsed by ugliness and desire beauty. But then ugliness has as much a place in our lives as beauty, or may be more as when there is widespread hunger and injustice in a society. Philosophers have told us that beauty is an important part of life, but isn’t ugliness apart of life too? And if art has beauty as an important ingredient, can it confine itself only to a projection of beauty? Can art ignore what is not beautiful?

Poets and artists have provided an answer by incorporating both into their work. In doing so, they have often tied beauty to truth and justice, so that what is not beautiful assumes a tolerable proportion as something that represents some truth about life. John Keats, the romantic poet, wrote in his celebrated ‘Ode on a Grecian Urn’ ‘Beauty is truth, truth beauty,’ by which he means that truth, even if it’s not pleasant, becomes beautiful at a higher level. Similarly, what is beautiful forever remains true. Another meaning, in the context of the Grecian Urn an art object-is that truth is a condition of art.

Summary: Beauty is easy to appreciate but difficult to define, raising questions about its objective identity and universality. It can manifest through its absence, highlighting the role of ugliness in life, especially in the context of societal issues like hunger and injustice. Philosophers and artists have integrated both beauty and ugliness into their work, connecting beauty with truth and justice. John Keats encapsulates this idea in “Ode on a Grecian Urn,” suggesting that truth, even if unpleasant, attains a higher level of beauty. Thus, art must encompass both the beautiful and the ugly to represent life’s truths.

7. Education gives us knowledge and set of abilities to function meaningfully in life, such as the ability to decide things rationally and make the right choices. As we learn how to read, write and do the basic operations of arithmetic. We gain a degree of self-confidence. We learn to think for ourselves and articulate our thoughts; we pick up skills to communicate with others and manage our affairs well. Education helps us think independently and make our own opinions. As we know more about the world. We appreciate the good things it offers us but also become critical of the deviations from the values it imparts and the rise of hatred or conflict that follows.

The first thing education does is to gives us an awareness about ourselves which leads to the development of our personality. As we begin school we feel the need to belong to the class and make friends. We than expand our community and finally our country. Education thus prepares every child to become an active member of the community and work for its welfare.

Education it is believed releases our potentials and our inner strengths. It sharps our intellect and develops our creativity. As we are taught to reason well and find solutions to the problems of life we become productive members of society. Education by definition is progressive and liberal, teaching us to respect human diversity and cultural and religious differences. If all of us practice these values in life, the world become a much happier place.Summary: Education equips us with the knowledge and abilities to make rational decisions, communicate effectively, and manage our affairs confidently. It fosters independent thinking and helps us form our own opinions, while also making us critical of societal deviations and conflicts. By raising self-awareness, education develops our personality and prepares us to be active, community-oriented citizens. It enhances our intellect, creativity, and problem-solving skills, making us productive members of society. Ultimately, education promotes respect for diversity and, if practiced universally, can create a happier world.

8. According to some myths and legends, Gazi Pir was a Muslim saint who is said to have spread Islam in the parts of Bengal close to the Sundarbans. He was credited with many miracles. For example, he could supposedly calm dangerous and make them docile. He is usually depicted in paats or scroll paintings riding a fierce-looking Bengal tiger, a snake in his hand, but in apparent danger. According to some stories, he also fought crocodiles who threatened the people of a region full of canals and creeks, indeed, a kind of watery jungle bordering the Bay of Bengal. Because of his alert and vigilant presence, all predatory animals were said to have been kept within bounds. It was also believed that he enabled villagers to live close to forests and jungles and cultivate their lands. Consequently, people of these regions would pray to him for protection. The story of Gazi Pir has been preserved in folk literature as well as art and has been performed in indigenous theatre. In fact, some Gazir paat scrolls are part of the collection of the British Museum.

Summary: Gazi Pir, a Muslim saint, is said to have spread Islam in the Bengal region near the Sundarbans and performed numerous miracles, including calming dangerous animals and fighting crocodiles. He is often shown in scroll paintings riding a Bengal tiger with a snake in his hand. His vigilant presence was believed to keep predatory animals in check, enabling villagers to live near forests and cultivate their lands safely. People in the region prayed to him for protection. His story is preserved in folk literature, art, and indigenous theatre, with some Gazir paat scrolls featured in the British Museum.

9. Bangladesh is blessed with huge inland open water resources. It has numerous rivers, canals, beels, lakes, and vast areas of floodplains. Hakaluki Haor is one of the major wetlands of Bangladesh. With a land area of 18,386 hectares, it supports a rich biodiversity and provides direct and indirect livelihood benefits to nearly 190,000 people. This haor was declared an Ecologically Critical Area in April 1999 by the Government of Bangladesh.

Hakaluki is a complex ecosystem, containing more than 238 interconnecting beels and jalmahals. The most important beels Chatla, Pinlarkona, Dulla, Sakua, Barajalla, Balijhuri, Lamba, Tekonia, Haorkhal, Tural, Baghalkuri and Chinaura.

Hakaluki Haor is bounded by the Kushiara river as well as a part of the Sonai-Bardal river to the north, by the Fenchuganj-Kulaura railway to the west and to the south, and by the Kulaura-Beanibazar road to the east. The haor falls under two administrative districts, Maulvibazar and Sylhet. Some 190,000 people live in the area surrounding the haor.

Hakaluki Haor is an important source of fisheries resources for Bangladesh. Kalibaus, Boal, Rui, Ghagot, Pabda and Chapila are the main fish species found here. From the Kushiara there are frequent upstream movements of fish towards the beels and tributaries of Hakaluki. The beels in Hakaluki Haor provide winter shelter for the mother fisheries. In early monsoon these mother fisheries produce millions of fries for the entire downstream fishing communities. Floodplains are also an important source of fisheries resources within the area. However, many of the beels have lost their capacity to provide shelter for mother fisheries because of sand deposits from upstream rivers and canals, use of complete dewatering technique for fishing and lack of aquatic plants to provide feed and shelter for parent fish.

Summary: Bangladesh possesses abundant inland open water resources, including rivers, canals, beels, lakes, and floodplains, with Hakaluki Haor being one of its major wetlands. Spanning 18,386 hectares, Hakaluki Haor supports rich biodiversity and provides livelihood benefits to nearly 190,000 people, and was declared an Ecologically Critical Area in 1999. This complex ecosystem comprises over 238 interconnecting beels and jalmahals and is located between the districts of Maulvibazar and Sylhet. Hakaluki Haor is crucial for fisheries, hosting species like Kalibaus, Boal, Rui, Ghagot, Pabda, and Chapila, and serving as a winter refuge for mother fisheries that produce fries during the monsoon. However, the beels are losing their capacity to support fisheries due to sand deposits, complete dewatering techniques, and the lack of aquatic plants.