Sentences are the fundamental building blocks of language, acting as the cornerstone upon which communication is constructed. From simple declarations to complex narratives, sentences serve as the vehicle through which ideas are conveyed, emotions expressed, and stories told. Understanding the nuances of sentences is crucial for effective communication, whether in writing or speech. In this article, we delve into the definition, classification, examples, and exercises related to sentences, aiming to enhance your grasp of this essential linguistic unit.

Definition of Sentences: At its core, a sentence is a grammatical unit composed of one or more words that expresses a complete thought. In other words, it conveys a specific idea or message. A sentence typically consists of a subject, a verb, and sometimes an object or complement. However, certain types of sentences may deviate from this traditional structure.

Characteristics of a sentence: To form a sentence, three characteristics are needed. Such as

1. Completeness of Sentence (অর্থের পূর্ণতা )

2. Correct Order (যথাযথ শৃঙ্খলা )

3. Combination of Words (শব্দ সমষ্টি )

Elements of a sentence: To make a sentence we need some elements like  Subject, Objcet, Verb, Adjective, Adverb, Complement  etc.

Classification of Sentence:

As per of kind, Sentence is divided into two groups – 1.Formative  2.Structural.

Formative Sentence : Formative means the formation of sentence. It is divided into five kinds and they are – a. Assertive , b.Interrogative , c.Imperative , d. Optative and e. Exclamatory.

According to meaning/functionIdentification
1Assertive (বিবৃতি সূচক)makes a statement or assertionSubject + verb
2Interrogative (প্রশ্ন সূচক)asks a question(?)
3Imperative (অনুজ্ঞা সূচক)expresses a order, request, command or advice Starts with verb, let, please, kindly, always, never
4Optative (ইচ্ছা প্রকাশক)expresses strong feelings or emotionsStarts with may /long (wish/pray/hope/desire)
5Exclamatory (বিস্ময় সূচক)expresses surprise, joy, sorrow, appreciation, love excitement, frustration, anger(!)


  1. Functional Classification:
    • Declarative Sentence: Makes a statement or expresses an opinion. Example: “The sun is shining.”
    • Interrogative Sentence: Asks a question. Example: “Are you coming?”
    • Imperative Sentence: Gives a command or makes a request. Example: “Please pass the salt.”
    • Optative Sentence: Indicates prayer or wish is called an Optative sentence.
    • Exclamatory Sentence: Conveys strong emotion or surprise. Example: “What a beautiful day!”

* Exclamatory sentence starts with how/what an ends with the Note of Exclamation. In an exclamatory sentence the word ‘very’ is expressed with how/ what and it stands before the subject and the verb stands at the end.

Classification of Sentences:

Sentences can be classified based on their structure, purpose, or function within a given context. Here are some common classifications:

  1. Structural Classification:
    • Simple Sentence: Contains a single independent clause, expressing a complete thought. Example: “She sings.”
    • Compound Sentence: Consists of two or more independent clauses joined by coordinating conjunctions like ‘and’, ‘but’, or ‘or’. Example: “He reads books, and she paints.”
    • Complex Sentence: Comprises one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. Example: “While he studied, she slept.”
    • Compound-Complex Sentence: Combines elements of both compound and complex sentences, featuring two or more independent clauses and at least one dependent clause. Example: “She cooked dinner while he set the table, and they ate together when it was ready.”

Examples of Sentences:

To further illustrate the diversity of sentences, here are some examples across different classifications:

  1. Simple Sentence: “She dances gracefully.”
  2. Compound Sentence: “He loves to swim, but she prefers to hike.”
  3. Complex Sentence: “After the rain stopped, the sun emerged from behind the clouds.”
  4. Compound-Complex Sentence: “Although she was tired, she stayed up late to finish her project, and she succeeded.”


  1. Identify the Sentence Type: Determine whether each sentence is declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory.
    • a) “Please close the door.”
    • b) “What time is the meeting?”
    • c) “I cannot believe it!”
    • d) “The cat chased the mouse.”
  2. Classify the Sentence Structure: Classify each sentence as simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex.
    • a) “He runs every morning, and she bikes in the evening.”
    • b) “She cooked dinner while he washed the dishes.”
    • c) “The dog barked loudly when the doorbell rang.”
    • d) “The sun sets in the west, but the moon rises in the east.”

Sentences are the lifeblood of communication, enabling individuals to express thoughts, share information, and connect with others. By understanding the definition, classifications, examples, and engaging in exercises, you can strengthen your command of sentences, ultimately enhancing your proficiency in both written and spoken language. Practice diligently, and watch as your mastery of sentences unfolds, unlocking a world of linguistic possibilities.

Identify Sentences from the following words
1. Look at the picture. 2. May you live long. 3. Is he an honest man? 4. Never tell a lie. 5. Monika is a student. 6. He is reading a book. 7. Aren’t they happy? 8. Let us go out for a walk. 9. They were playing football. 10. Is she not a beautiful girl? 11. I will swim in the river. 12. Kindly help me. 13. Did they play cricket? 14. Forgive me. 15. It has been raining for two hours. 16. Is Mitu teaching in the class?  17. Do the sum. 18. Shut the door. 19. Do not go there. 20. Do not tell a lie. 20. Did she write a letter? 21. Always speak the truth. 22. Let us go there. 23. Let him play. 24. The rising sun is the symbol of birth. 25. Is Monir a B.A.? 26. The rose is a symbol of beauty. 27. We are happy. 28. He is not an honest man. 29. What a beautiful country it is! 30. Monika is not boiling an egg. 31. It is raining now. 32. They are not playing. 33. May Allah help you. 34. You are not a good man. 35. Sejuti is my sister. 36. You will be happy. 37. You will not pass in the exam. 38. Is he not an honest man? 39. The white colour is the symbol of purity. 40. Does he read the Quran? 41. Does he not go to school? 42. Write a letter. 43. Eat rice. 44. Please give me your pen. 45. Let us discuss the matter. 46. Pray for me. 47. Draw a mango. 48. Be attentive. 49. Read your lessons. 50. Open the door. 51. Help the poor. 52. Lend me your eraser, please. 53. Give me your pen. 54. Tell me the story. 55. Tell me when your birthday is. 56. May Allah bless you. 57. Hurrah! We have won the game. 58. The pious are happy. 59. Let him sing a song. 60. May you succeed in life. 61. March forward. 62. Had I the wings of a dove! 63. May you pass in the first division. 64. Shall I ever forget those happy days? 65. Don’t kill your time. 66. May his soul rest in peace. 67. Has he a cat? 68. May you succeed in life. 69. How long did you wait for me? 70. He has a car.

Put a tick mark on the correct answer.
1. The sentences which make statements or assertions – affirmative or negative are called ___
a. Imperative sentence b. Interrogative sentence    c. Assertive sentence   d. Optative sentence
2.    An assertive sentence makes a –
a. desire b. statement    c. feeling    d. command
3.    Which sentences express command, order, request?
a. Assertive     b. Interrogative c. Optative     d. Imperative
4.    Which sentences ask questions?
a. Imperative        b. Interrogative    c. Assertive        d. Optative
5.    Exclamatory sentences express-
a. desire        b. statement    c. command        d. emotions
6.    Which sentences express wishes or prayers?

a. Assertive    b. Imperative      c. Optative    d. Exclamatory

7.    Imperative sentence denotes –
a. statements        b. orders    c. requests    d. both b and c
8.    Which sentences start with may?
a. Assertive    b. Imperative      c. Optative    d. Exclamatory
9.    Person or thing about which something is said is called the –
a. predicate        b. subject    c. both a and b        d. none
10.    What is said about the subject is called the –
a. subject    b. predicate    c. both a and b    d. none
11.    When did you come?
a. Imperative    b. Interrogative      c. Optative    d. Assertive
12.    What a fine bird it is!
a. Imperative    b. Exclamatory      c. Assertive    d. Optative
13.    The pious are happy.
a. Affirmative        b. Optative    c. Negative        d. Imperative
14.    He has a nice car.
a. Optative     b. Negative  c. Imperative    d. Affirmative
15.    Do the work at once.
a. Assertive    b. Interrogative     c. Optative    d. Imperative
16.    May Allah bless you.

Assertive    b. Imperative    c. Optative    d. Exclamatory
17.    Do you like to play cricket?
c. Imperative    d. Exclamatory  a. Affirmative    b. Optative
18.    English is an international language.
c. Exclamatory    d. Optative  a. Imperative    b. Interrogative
19.    How long did you wait for me?
c. Exclamatory    d. Assertive a. Imperative    b. Interrogative    

20. He does not like to read at all.
c. Exclamatory    d. Optative  a. Imperative    b. Interrogative    

21. Shakespeare is a great dramatist.
c. Assertive         d. Imperative  a. Interrogative        b. Optative
22.    Let him sing a song.
c. Assertive        d. Imperative a. Interrogative        b. Optative    

23. Has he a cat?
c. Assertive    d. Imperative a. Interrogative    b. Optative    

24. May you succeed in life.
c. Assertive    d. Imperative a. Interrogative    b. Optative    

25. What a dangerous thing a little learning is!
c. Imperative    d. Optative a. Assertive    b. Interrogative
26.    March forward.
c. Imperative    d. Exclamatory a. Assertive    b. Interrogative    

  27. Don’t kill your time.
a. Assertive    b. Interrogative     c. Imperative    d. Exclamatory
28.    May his soul rest in peace.

Optative     b. Assertive     c. Imperative    d. Exclamatory     

29.  Alas! I have failed.
c. Optative    d. Exclamatory a. Assertive    b. Imperative
30.    All’s well that ends well.
c. Optative    d. Exclamatory   a. Assertive    b. Imperative    

31. The poor are born to suffer.
a. Assertive    b. Imperative    c. Optative    d. Exclamatory
32.    Moni dances well.
a. Imperative    b. Interrogative    c. Optative    d. Assertive
33.    When did you start the work?
a. Imperative    b. Interrogative     c. Optative    d. Exclamatory
34.    Had I the wings of a dove!
a. Imperative    b. Interrogative     c. Optative    d. Exclamatory
35.    Only the graduates should apply.
a. Imperative    b. Interrogative    c. Assertive    d. Exclamatory
36.    None but the brave deserve the fair.
a. Imperative    b. Interrogative     c. Optative    d. Assertive
37.    If I knew this before!
a. Optative    b. Imperative    c. Exclamatory    d. Assertive
38.    May you pass in the first division.
a. Optative    b. Imperative      c. Exclamatory    d. Assertive
39.    Let the dog bark.
a. Optative    b. Imperative     c. Exclamatory    d. Assertive
40.    What though I fail?
a. Imperative    b. Exclamatory     c. Optative    d. Interrogative
41.    Friendship is nothing but a name.
a. Imperative    b. Exclamatory      c. Optative    d. Assertive
42.    Oh that I were young again!
a. Imperative    b. Exclamatory    c. Optative    d. Assertive
43.    He is too dishonest to speak the truth.
a. Imperative    b. Exclamatory    c. Optative    d. Assertive
44.    What an unhappy life he leads!
a. Imperative    b. Exclamatory    c. Optative    d. Assertive
45.    Shall I ever forget those happy days?
a. Interrogative    b. Assertive     c. Imperative    d. Optative

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