Modifier

Definition: Modify is to change or to alter something. A modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that functions as an adjective or adverb to give extra information about another words or word called the head.

ModifierPre modifierplaced before the head is called a pre modifier
Post modifierplaced after the head is called a post modifier

List of Adverb: always, ever, never, twice, again, somewhere, here, there, everywhere, rather, once, daily, sometimes, often, seldom, now, then, soon, tomorrow, yesterday, today, tonight, again, early, yesterday, just, during, yet, thus, only, also, too, very, very much, adjective + ly etc

Modifier= to change or to alter something

               = word, phrase, or clause

               = adjective or adverb

1. Rules of part of speech

a. Article+adjective+noun

b. Article+adverb+adjective+noun

c. Pre/post modify the verb=adverb

d. Noun- adjective

Pre modify the noun=Adjective

Pre modify the Adjective= Adverb

Pre/post modify the verb=adverb

Noun- adjective=noun

Noun-adjectives: Noun is a person, place or thing, and an adjective describes a noun. Sometimes we use a noun to describe another noun. The first word is usually a noun but here functions as an adjective modifying the second word.

For example, government road accident research centre, city government, article writer, bicycle thief, Sunday picnic, pumpkin pie, news reporter, table tennis.  athletic trainer, race horse, boat race,  love story, war story, tennis ball,  computer exhibition, bicycle shop, food adulteration, tea table, grammar book

2. Appositive=noun or noun phrase

                     = giving extra information about previous noun or noun phrase

                     = Appositive can be used as subject or object.

Tamim Islam=noun

Student=noun

A student=noun phrase

A meritorious student=noun phrase

A very meritorious student=noun phrase

Appositive as subject

Bonna, my sister, is 17 years old. My mom, a nurse, drives a red car. Kamal, a painter, painted this picture. Mr. Hasan, the principal at my school, wears a tie every day. My best friend, Rana, is moving in with me. Her first teacher, Minu, was a strict person. My friends, the noisiest gang, knocked at my door. Makamum, my eight month-old daughter, is eating noodles. Jerry, your little cat, is not so little any more. My mom, a nurse at the hospital, has to work late sometimes. My friend, Liza is an excellent dancer. The jeans, my favorite pant, need to be washed.

Appositive as object

I like Monika, the best actress in our school. I really like my grand father’s horse, Chester. The little boy stood up to John, the biggest liar. The girl in the red dress is Sarah, our best actress. Have you read Brothers, a book by Dean Hughes? I know Rana, the electrical contractor. The apartment had bugs, big brown cockroaches. I travelled to Mexico City, the biggest city in the world.

3. Nonfinite verb: to+v1, v1+ing, v3

Infinitive=to+v1

Infinitive phrase= to+v1+ext….

Participle= v1+ing, v3

to go

to go to Noakhali

Present Participle= v1+ing

Past Participle= v3

People (Present Participle=drinking) dirty water suffer a lot.

People (Past Participle=addicted) to alchohol lose everything.

4. Determiner: Determiners are words which come at the beginning of the noun phrase. They tell us whether the noun phrase is specific or general. Articles, demonstrative pronoun, possessive pronoun, quantifier, number, ordinal are included in determiner.

a. Articles= a, an, the

b. Demonstratives=this, that, these, those, such

this, these=near in time and distance

that, those=far in time and distance

c. Possessives=my, your, our, their, his, hers, its, whose, Rana’s, friends’ etc.

d. Quantifiers= much, little, a bit, a great deal of, many, few, a number of, several, all, enough, more, most, less, no, none, some, any, a lot of, lots of, plenty of

e. Numbers=one, two, three, twenty, forty, 1, 2, 3 first, second, third, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, single, double, triple

5. Intensifier=adverb

                   = to give force or emphasis

                   = very, so, enough

I strongly disagree. It’s extremely hot in Africa. Do you really mean it? It’s fairly interesting. It’s quite calm here. He’s pretty intelligent. These students are rather noisy. I so wanted to buy the dress. She writes poems too often. It’s absolutely amazing. I am a little angry with her. You play card very well.

6. Relative clause/adjective clause

Re means back and lative means relation

Relative pronoun (who, which, that, what, whom, whose) placed before an adjective clause connects a clause or phrase to a noun or pronoun.

Relative clauses= Relative clauses start with the relative pronouns.

The cyclist who won the race trained hard. The pants that I bought yesterday are already stained. The four team leaders, whomever the committee selects, will be at tomorrow’s meeting. Biriani, which we eat twice a week, is one of my favorite meals. The book, when it was finally returned, was torn and stained. The store on the corner, where we usually buy all of our art supplies, burned to the ground. The festival, which lasted all day, ended with a banquet. I am looking for someone who can watch my dog while I go on vacation. The police needed details that could help identify the robber. I’d like to take you to a café which serves excellent coffee. I saw the shoes what you bought last week on sale for less this week. The winners, when known, will receive money and other prizes. This is the place where we met. This is the book that everyone is talking about. She wrote to the person whom she had met last month.

7. Prepositional Phrases: A prepositional phrase starts with a preposition and ends with a noun, pronoun, gerund, or clause, the “object” of the preposition. It functions as an adjective or adverb.

Structure: preposition+noun/pronoun/gerund/clause

                     preposition+modifier(s) +noun/pronoun/gerund/clause

Commonly used Prepositional Phrases: According to the weather forecast, Across many deserts, After many tries, Amid the confusion, Around the world, Before we start the meeting, Between a rock and a hard place, By the light of the moon, like a beautiful swan, Near the ocean, Of my boss, Off the top, Out the door, Through the looking glass, Throughout the thick forest, To the amusement park

Prepositional Phrases that function as an Adjective: The book with the tattered cover has been read many times. All the passengers aboard the runaway train were frightened. The present inside the big box is mine. Our boss put out a memo regarding the new rule. The clues within the first few chapters will lead to the murderer. His is only one voice among many, but it will be heard.

Prepositional Phrases that function as Adverbs:  Racing toward the finish line, Sarah realized she just might win. My shopping list needs to be put into my purse. Without a GPS, we will lose our way. Until today, I had never heard that. The balloon drifted up the stairs. Put the fresh flowers upon a high shelf. Despite warnings, she tried to ski down Devil’s Run. Against all odds, our team won the tournament. The tiger crept slowly over the grass. We will order pizza during halftime.

8. Adverbial phrase: It is a group of words that functions as an adverb in a sentence. That is, it modifies a verb, adjective, adverb, clause, or the sentence as a whole. Adverbial phrases often feature an adverb being modified by other elements, but not always.

For examples: very quickly, in a while, just a bit, surprisingly well, at the fairground, slightly close, as soon as possible

Here are some examples of adverb phrases being used in sentences:

She rode her bike very hastily. The farmers worked like a single unit. The surf at the beach was coming in extremely quickly. After they woke up, they packed up their things and then went on a hike. He read the restaurant’s menu rather slowly.

Exercise on Modifier

  1. The importance of — (pre-modify the noun) habits lies in character.
  2. If we practice good habits, it will take form of — (use possessive) character and vice versa.
  3. We should inculcate good habits — (use prepositional phrase).
  4. Plato scolded — (use article/determiner) lad for gambling with nuts.
  5. You are scolding me for a — (pre-modify the adjective) small matter.
  6. Plato — (Pre-modify the verb) said that habit is not a small matter.
  7. Plato was speaking out of — (use determiner) very depth of his great experience.
  8. Plato was speaking about — (use noun adjective) nature.
  9. He is — (use article) asset to the society at large.
  10. If you — (pre-modify the verb) allow a bad habit to grow, it becomes a part of your nature.
  11. Computer is an advanced — (pre modify the noun) device.
  12. It takes raw data as input — (use prepositional phrase) and processes these data.
  13. A computer has — (use determiner) functions: it accepts data, processes data, produces output and stores results.
  14. Input is the raw information — (use participle) into a computer from the input devices.
  15. The first and — (Premodify the noun) duty in student life is — (use infinitive).
  16. He should read not only his — (use participle) books.
  17. He should also read the books of — (premodify the noun) writers.
  18. He has also to read newspapers, journals and magazines and widen — (use possessive) outlook.
  19. He has to fix his aim of life and equip himself for — (use demonstrative/Determiner) profession.
  20. He should keep — (use prepositional phrase).
  21. Students of today are the — (premodify the noun) leaders of the nation.
  22. A student should not waste — (use possessive) time and energies.
  23. Once a goose used to lay a — (pre-modify the noun) egg every day.
  24. The farmer used to sell them — (use prepositional phrase).
  25. He was happy — (use an infinitive phrase) every day.
  26. But his wife was a — (pre-modify the noun) woman.
  27. She wanted — (use an infinitive) all eggs together.
  28. Then she would be a rich woman — (post-modify the verb).
  29. She cut the belly of the goose — (use an infinitive) her greed.
  30. — (use present participle phrase) of the goose, she found no egg there.
  31. She became — (pre-modify the adjective) disappointed.
  32. Her greed brought her — (pre-modify the noun) luck.
  33. I gathered a peculiar experience — (post modify the verb) while travelling to St. Martin’s Island.
  34. Habib, — (an appositive) was my guide.
  35. We watched — (use demonstrative) sea gulls.
  36. The — (pre-modify the noun) birds were flying — (post-modify the verb) with the ship.
  37. They became — (use an intensifier) dear and friendly to us.
  38. We became — (use an intensifier) excited.
  39. We decided — (use an infinitive phrase) in the idyllic island.
  40. We can never forget — (use a demonstrative) lovely sea birds.
  41. Language plays a — (pre-modify the adjective) important role in our life.
  42. We use language from the time we wake up — (use an adverbial phrase) till we go to bed at night.
  43. We use language not only in our waking hours but also in our — (use noun).
  44. We use language — (use an infinitive) what we feel, like or dislike.
  45. We also use language — (use an infinitive) information.
  46. Language is — (pre-modify the adjective) present in our activities.
  47. It is an — (pre-modify the noun) part of our life.
  48. As an — (pre-modify the noun) nation we also have a language.
  49. But we used to struggle — (post-modify the verb) to establish the right to our language.
  50. Many — (pre-modify the noun) sons sacrificed their live for the language.
  51. Education — (use appositive) is essential for development.
  52. We can improve — (use possessive) mind.
  53. An — (pre-modify the noun) person has the ability — (infinitive phrase).
  54. One can refine one’s sensibility — (present participle phrase).
  55. Actually, the educated are able to bring about — (pre-modify the noun) development.
  56. An — (pre-modify the noun) person — (pre-modify the verb) lag behind.
  57. The educated should come forward — (prepositional phrase) to educate all in the society
  58. Once upon a time there lived a — (pre-modify the noun) fox.
  59. It was roaming in search of food — (post-modify the verb).
  60. He looked, but could not find anything — (use an infinitive phrase).
  61. — (pre-modify the verb) he saw a garden at a distance.
  62. — (use a demonstrative) grapes looked quite ripe and juicy.
  63. The fox looked at the grapes with longing eyes and licked — (use possessive) chops.
  64. The fox tried — (Post-modify the verb).
  65. But he failed — (use an infinitive phrase).
  66. Bangladesh is a — (pre-modify the noun) country.
  67. It has a — (pre-modify the noun) population.
  68. Most people here live below the — (use noun adjective) line.
  69. Many poor children either drop out of school — (use a phrase).
  70. We have far too many students — (use infinitive) compared to the number of institutions.
  71. Bangladesh needs more institutions to provide for the — (use present participle) number of students.
  72. One hot — (use a noun adjective) day an ant was searching for some water.
  73. After walking for some time she came to a — (pre-modify the noun) spring.
  74. While climbing the blade of — (use a demonstrative) grass, she slipped and fell into water.
  75. Soon it carried her — (post modify the verb) to the dry ground.
  76. The ant saw a hunter standing — (use an intensifier) close to her.
  77. She went — (post-modify the verb) towards the hunter and gave him a severe bite.
  78. Seeing this, the dove flew away — (use an infinitive) her life.
  79. Othello, — (use an appositive) had risen to become a general.
  80. He had shown his bravery in many — (pre-modify the noun) battles against the Turks.
  81. Every one praised him — (post modify the verb) and the senate trusted and honoured him.
  82. Brabantio had a daughter named Desdemona — (use a relative clause).
  83. Brabantio — (pre-modify the verb) invited Othello to his house.
  84. He told them of mountains high — (use an intensifier) to touch the sky.
  85. She pitied Othello — (post modify the verb) for the misfortune of his life.
  86. Her pity — (post modify the verb) turned to love.
  87. She refused all the young men — (use an infinitive) because she loved Othello.
  88. The newspaper — (an appositive) is a printed record of current event.
  89. It gives us — (use determiner) important news of home and abroad.
  90. In a word, the newspaper is like — (use determiner) mirror of the world.
  91. The “Indian Gazette” was the — (use determiner) newspaper of the subcontinent.
  92. The Samachar Darpon was first — (use a noun adjective) newspaper.
  93. A newspaper is — (pre modify the adjective) useful to us.
  94. We cannot think of — (use possessive) morning without it.
  95. — (pre-modify the noun) people have different taste.
  96. So, a newspaper supplies us with — (use a determiner) sort of news.
  97. We all should read newspaper — (post modify the verb).
  98. Rabindranath Tagore, — (an appositive) was born in 1861.
  99. He was — (use determiner) fourteenth child of Devendranath and Sarada Devi Tagore.
  100. He went to school — (an adverbial of time) and wrote his — (Use determiner) verse at the age of eight.
  101. He reached London — (use an infinitive phrase).
  102. He gathered — (Use determiner) experience from his stay in London.
  103. — (Use a demonstrative) experience had a lasting effect on his later life.
  104. Rabindranath returned home without — (Use determiner) qualifications of distinction.
  105. However, he never gave up — (Use possessive) habit of writing poetry.
  106. Sheikh Saadi, — (an appositive), was simple in his ways of life.
  107. — (Use quantifier) day, at the invitation of the emperor, he set out for the emperor’s palace.
  108. He took shelter in a courtier’s house — (prepositional phrase).
  109. The courtier and his men did not show — (Use determiner) honour and hospitality to him.
  110. Saadi again took shelter in the — (Pre-modify the noun) courtier’s house.
  111. — (Use a demonstrative) time he put on a gorgeous dress.
  112. The courtier received him — (Post modify the verb) and entertained him with rich foods.
  113. The courtier’s men were surprised — (Use an infinitive phrase).
  114. They asked him why he was putting the foods — (with prepositional phrase).
  115. Load-shedding, — (an appositive), means intentional stopping of the supply of electricity.
  116. It occurs when — (Use article) generation of power is less than the demand.
  117. Load shedding hampers our — (pre-modify the noun) household activities.
  118. Students cannot prepare — (Use possessive) lessons and idle away their time.
  119. Parents suffer — (Post-modify the verb) because of load shedding.
  120. Load shedding hampers the smooth — (pre-modify the noun) development of a country.
  121. We should try — (Use an infinitive) more electricity through government.
  122. An all-out effort can solve — (Use a demonstrative) problem.
  123. A village doctor is a — (use an intensifier) familiar person in the rural areas of Bangladesh.
  124. He is — (pre-modify the verb) known as a quack.
  125. A village doctor is not a — (pre-modify the noun) doctor.
  126. He — (pre-modify the verb) sits in a small dispensary in the morning and evening.
  127. He treats the patients — (use a participle) small fees.
  128. A village doctor is not a — (pre-modify the noun) man.
  129. His chamber is — (pre-modify the verb) furnished.
  130. He cannot supply costly medicines to the (h) — (pre-modify the noun) patients.
  131. The number of qualified doctors is — (use an intensifier) few.
  132. So, a village doctor is a great friend to the — (pre-modify the noun) people.
  133. Nelson Mandela, — (an appositive), is one of the greatest leaders of the world.
  134. During — (use article) time of Mandela, the Europeans were separated from the no-Europeans.
  135. It was a — (use noun adjective) policy of racial segregation.
  136. The blacks were subjected to — (use quantifier) sorts of indignities.
  137. They were denied all basic — (pre-modify the noun) rights.
  138. They were in fact aliens in — (use possessive) own country.
  139. The blacks were also treated — (post-modify the verb).
  140. The — (pre-modify the noun) leader vowed to put an end to the inhuman practice.
  141. Unfortunately, — (use a demonstrative) great man was thrown behind the prison bars.
  142. The great leader fulfilled the goal of liberating — (use possessive) people.
  143. Water is a — (pre-modify the noun) substance.
  144. It has no color of — (possessive) own.
  145. The — (use determiner) name of water is life.
  146. By drinking water, we can quench — (use possessive to pre-modify the noun) thirst.
  147. But — (pre-modify the noun) water is life killing.
  148. We may — (pre modify the verb) face — (pre-modify the noun) death by drinking such type of water.
  149. We are responsible for — (use noun adjective) pollution.
  150. Besides, latrines — (use participle) on ponds and rivers cause water pollution.
  151. — (pre-modify the noun) awareness should be raised to stop water pollution.
  152. 21st February, — (use an appositive), in our history is now observed all over the world.
  153. People of our country get up — (post-modify the verb) in the morning.
  154. They walk — (post-modify the verb) to the Shaheed Minar.
  155. Most of them put on — (pre-modify the noun) badges on their shoulder.
  156. They go to the Shaheed Minar — (use a participle) the most cherished song.
  157. They pray for the — (use a possessive) souls.
  158. They also gather in mosques, temples and other — (pre-modify the noun) institutions.
  159. They pray for the salvation of the martyr’s — (pre-modify the noun) soul.
  160. Different organizations arrange — (pre-modify the noun) programs on — (use a demonstrative) day.
  161. One day Robert Bruce — (appositive), was lying in the cave.
  162. He was thinking of — (use possessive) misfortune.
  163. He thought that he would not be able — (use an infinitive phrase).
  164. Suddenly, he saw a spider — (a prepositional/an adverbial of place).
  165. The spider was trying to reach — (use determiner) ceiling of the cave.
  166. It almost got to the point — (use quantifier) times.
  167. It was trying — (an adverbial).
  168. Robert Bruce became amazed — (use an infinitive phrase) the success of the spider.
  169. He remembered the small spider and prepared — (an adverb) for the battle.
  170. He fought hard with the English and — (use a demonstrative) time, he came out successful.
  171. Bangladesh — (an appositive), has a huge population.
  172. People live below the — (pre-modify the noun) line.
  173. They can’t therefore afford to educate — (Use a possessive) children.
  174. Many poor children drop out of school after just a — (Use a quantifier) years.
  175. We have far too many students — (Use infinitive) compared to the number of institutions available.
  176. Bangladesh needs — (Use a determiner) schools, colleges and universities.
  177. Students do not get a — (Pre-modify the noun) education for lack of facilities.
  178. A moonlit night, — (an appositive), is very charming and enjoyable.
  179. It presents an — (Use an adjective) sight.
  180. On — (Use article) moonlit night, the moon looks like a disk of silver.
  181. The whole world shines — (post modify the verb).
  182. People of — (Use determiner) ages enjoy a moonlit night.
  183. They pass — (Use possessive) time talking to each other.
  184. — (Use quantifier) people arrange picnic on the roof — (Use an infinitive phrase) the time.
  185. A moonlit night has — (Use determiner) special significance for the poor.
  186. Most of — (use a possessive) students cannot write out their examination papers fairly.
  187. They cannot understand the questions — (post-modify the verb).
  188. Students — (pre-modify the verb) lengthen them unnecessarily.
  189. Their — (pre-modify the noun) answers generally become disgusting and unnecessary.
  190. Such answers always earn — (pre-modify the noun) marks.
  191. All you should do, is to understand the questions — (post modify the verb).
  192. Don’t worry, if — (use a possessive) answers are fairly short.
  193. You should make your presentation neat and clean — (use an infinitive phrase).
  194. Make your sentences — (use an intensifier) short and simple.
  195. Nobel Prize is awarded for — (pre-modify the noun) contributions to different fields.
  196. It is awarded in — (pre-modify the noun) fields.
  197. It is the world’s most — (pre-modify the noun) prize.
  198. The prize money is divided — (post-modify the verb) among them.
  199. Alfred Nobel earned a lot of money — (a present participle phrase).
  200. For this — (pre-modify the noun) invention he became famous.
  201. His name and fame spread — (post-modify the verb).
  202. There is a Nobel committee — (an infinitive) the right person for award.
  203. The winners of Nobel Prize are treated with — (pre-modify the noun) respect.
  204. The world will always remember him for his — (pre-modify the noun) contribution.
  205. Books are — (an intensifier) essential for us.
  206. They help us — (an infinitive) knowledge.
  207. — (a present participle) books, we can know everything.
  208. They show us the — (pre-modify the noun) way.
  209. Books can be our — (pre-modify the noun) friends.
  210. They help us — (an infinitive) our mind.
  211. They improve our — (pre-modify the noun) power.
  212. They give us solace to our — (pre-modify the noun) mind.
  213. Besides reading — (pre-modify the noun) books, students should read other books.
  214. If they read other books, they will be able to know everything — (post modify the verb).
  215. Once upon a time there lived — (Use article) generous and kindhearted king.
  216. But the people were not happy with — (Use possessive) king.
  217. The king would not do — (use determiner) work other than eating and sleeping.
  218. He spent many days in — (Use possessive) bed either eating something or sleeping.
  219. He became — (use an adverb) inactive.
  220. The king became — (use article) potato couch
  221. — (Use quantifier) day he realized that he could not even move his body.
  222. He invited — (pre-modify the noun) doctors in his country.
  223. Rabindranath Tagore was a — (pre-modify the noun) poet of Bengali literature.
  224. He was born in a — (pre-modify the noun) family at Jarasanko, Kolkata.
  225. He went to school — (post modify the verb).
  226. He wrote his — (pre modify the noun) verse at the age of eight.
  227. He went to London — (use infinitive) school there.
  228. He was put up in lodging house under the care of a — (pre modify the noun) coach, Mr. Scott.
  229. He was lucky — (with infinitive) an English family of Mr. Scott.
  230. He also visited the House of parliament — (with an infinitive) debates on Irish rule.
  231. He wrote letters to Kolkata — (use present participle) English society.
  232. At this, his family thought that they might lose their son — (post modify the verb).
  233. He fought — (post modify the verb) and won the battle.
  234. He saw three witches — (a present participle) about him.
  235. He came — (an infinitive) from the witches.
  236. He became — (pre modify the adjective with an intensifier) ambitious.
  237. His wife also wanted Macbeth — (post modify the verb with an infinitive) the king.
  238. She was a very — (pre modify the noun) woman.
  239. So she began — (an infinitive) Macbeth.
  240. Then they both plotted to kill Duncan, — (an appositive).
  241. They planned — (an infinitive) Duncan.
  242. Mother is an — (pre-modify the noun) blessing in the world.
  243. Mother’s day is a — (Use an intensifier) significant day.
  244. Mothers’ day is now observed — (Use an adverbial phrase) around the world.
  245. The sons and daughters — (pre-modify the verb) wait for this day.
  246. They buy some special presents for their — (premodify the noun) mother.
  247. It brings a — (Use an adverb) happiness between a mother and — (Use a possessive) children.
  248. The mother — (pre-modify the verb) draws her children with her motherly affection.
  249. We pay a — (Use a participle) tribute to our dear mothers.
  250. Education is the process of developing our body, mind and soul through — (pre-modify the noun) learning.
  251. Its necessity cannot be described — (post-modify the verb).
  252. It is one of the — (pre-modify the noun) needs of a human being.
  253. It is a process by which our physical and — (pre-modify the noun) faculties are developed.
  254. A body cannot stand — (post-modify the verb) without a backbone.
  255. Education are of — (pre-modify the noun) kinds — formal and informal education.
  256. Education is necessary for — (pre-modify the noun) development of body, mind and soul.
  257. A — (pre-modify the noun) fox was roaming in search of food — (adverbial).
  258. He looked, but could not find anything — (use an infinitive phrase).
  259. — (pre-modify the verb) he saw a garden at a distance.
  260. He went there without — (use determiner) delay.
  261. The fox saw — (use article) number of grapevines laden with bunch of grapes.
  262. — (use a demonstrative) grapes looked quite ripe and juicy.
  263. The fox looked at the grapes with longing eyes and licked — (use possessive) chops.
  264. The fox tried — (adverbial).
  265. He failed — (use an infinitive phrase).
  266. Education, — (apposition), is considered to be the backbone of a nation.
  267. Mr Alom, — (use an appositive), usually goes for a — (use a noun adjective) walk every day.
  268. He saw a man — (use a participle) senseless — (use prepositional phrase).
  269. He — (premodify the verb) went nearer to the man and tried — (use infinitive phrase).
  270. Mr Alom became — (use an intensifier) afraid of the unwanted situation.
  271. He was a — (use a noun adjective) officer.
  272. The officer came and took the man to the — (pre-modify the noun) hospital.
  273. People are considered obese when — (use possessive) body mass index.
  274. Obesity increases the likelihood of — (pre-modify the noun) diseases.
  275. Female education is — (use an intensifier) essential for the overall development of a nation.
  276. — (use a participle), no nation can prosper. 
  277. But most of the women are lagging — (post-modify the noun) in education.
  278. Without female education, our — (pre-modify the noun) development is not possible.
  279. Women need to be educated for — (pre-modify the noun) reasons.
  280. A woman should be educated — (post-modify the verb).
  281. An — (premodify the noun) woman is conscious of her duties, rights and responsibilities.
  282. So, we should take every necessary step (h) ——(use an infinitive phrase) our female force.
  283. An educated woman can bring up her children — (post-modify the verb).
  284. Give me an educated mother, and I will give you an — (pre-modify the noun) nation.
  285. Once a tiger was — (use intensifier) hungry.
  286. He was looking for — (pre-modify the noun) animals to eat.
  287. But he failed — (use infinitive phrase).
  288. Then he met a — (pre-modify the noun) fox.
  289. And — (use a demonstrative) fox was also hungry.
  290. — (use a participle) satisfied a farmer set a trap to kill the tiger as it hunted its lambs ago.
  291. Bangladesh is a — (pre-modify the noun) country.
  292. Though it is a small country, it has a — (pre-modify the noun) population.
  293. It gained independence — (post-modify the verb).
  294. — (a present participle) for nine months, we achieved our freedom. 
  295. About three — (pre-modify the noun) people were killed in the war. 
  296. They sacrificed their lives — (an infinitive) freedom.
  297. We should not forget — (use a possessive) contribution.
  298. Now we are progressing — (post-modify the verb).
  299. Now we are able — (an infinitive) our problems.
  300. Our people will see — (pre-modify the noun) days soon.
  301. Deforestation means cutting down of trees — (post-modify the verb).
  302. Trees are being cut and thus it causes — (premodify the noun) imbalance.
  303. Some dishonest people cut trees in our forest — (use an infinitive phrase) money.
  304. Due to deforestation carbon dioxide is increasing — (post-modify the verb).
  305. The — (use a noun adjective) level is rising.
  306. New areas are — (use a participle) turned into desert as a result of deforestation.
  307. — (use a participle) trees in such an indiscriminate rate will be hazardous for existence.
  308. If we destory trees — (use an adverbial phrase), the country will turn into a great desert.
  309. The — (use a participle) temperature will cause greenhouse effect.
  310. Necessary measures should be taken — (use an infinitive phrase).
  311. A marriage ceremony is a — (Pre-modify the noun) occasion.
  312. It happens at the residence of the bride’s father on a — (Pre-modify the adjective) agreed day.
  313. The bridegroom’s party arrives — (Post-modify the verb) in time in their best dresses.
  314. The people of the bride — (Pre-modify the verb) receive him.
  315. Then the — (use noun adjective) ceremony begins.
  316. A — (use noun adjective) registrar makes a document for the registration of the marriage.
  317. The bride and bridegroom then perform some — (Pre-modify the noun) rites in a solemn way.
  318. A — (Pre-modify the noun) feast follows.
  319. The happy ceremony ends with a — (Pre-modify the noun) sense of separation.
  320. Amerigo, — (use noun in apposition) lives alone.
  321. No one of his parents wants — (use infinitive) his responsibility.
  322. — (use possessive) mother told him to go away because she is married to another man.
  323. — (use determiner) streets are now his home.
  324. He wanted money from his father to buy a — (Pre-modify the noun) ticket.
  325. — (use adverbial) he finds work.
  326. Some of — (use demonstrative) works are very risky for him.
  327. Once he sold ice-cream — (use prepositional phrase).
  328. But he got — (use quantifier) money in return from the owner of ice-cream.
  329. Unity is — (use an intensifier) essential — (use infinitive) the problems of life.
  330. The story is of an — (pre-modify the noun) man and his — (pre-modify the noun) sons. 
  331. He gave a bundle of sticks to his sons and asked them — (use infinitive phrase).
  332. He — (pre-modify the verb) asked them to break the stick.
  333. They could do — (post-modify the verb).
  334. This is — (pre-modify the adjective) true in case of a society or a nation.
  335. Tokai is a — (Use an adjective) Bangla word.
  336. It means one — (Use an adjective clause).
  337. He is a boy of the street — (Use a participle) no home and hearth.
  338. He leads a — (Use an intensifier) dirty and unhygienic life. 
  339. He puts on rags and — (Use an participle phrase) clothes.
  340. Bad smell comes from — (Use possessive) body and dress.
  341. He roams about in the streets — (Use a participle phrase) torn papers and clothes.
  342. He earns his livelihood — (Use a gerund phrase).
  343. If he can save money, he goes to the cinema hall — (Use an infinitive) a film.
  344. This is the way of their life — (post-modify the noun).
  345. I had to witness a very — (pre-modify the noun) street accident yesterday.
  346. Ruma, — (an appositive), also witnessed the accident.
  347. We were walking — (post-modify the verb) along the right side of the road.
  348. A jeep was coming with a great speed from the — (pre-modify the noun) direction.
  349. He was an — (pre-modify the noun) man and slower than usual.
  350. The jeep could not control — (possessive case) speed and ran over the old man.
  351. To — (use a possessive case) horror we saw that the man became a lump of flesh.
  352. We went to the — (use a noun) station to file a case against the driver.
  353. The officer-in-change thanked us for our — (pre-modify the noun) acts.
  354. Rabindranath Tagore, — (post-modify the noun with appositive), was born in 1861.
  355. He was born in a — (pre-modify the noun) family at Jorasanko in Kolkata.
  356. He was — (use determiner) fourteenth child of Devendranath and Sarada Tagore.
  357. He went to school — (post-modify the verb) and wrote his — (use determiner) verse at 8.
  358. He gathered much experience from his stay — (prepositional phrase).
  359. — (use a demonstrative) had a lasting effect on his later life.
  360. In 1880 he returned home without (h) — (use determiner) qualifications of distinction.
  361. However, he never gave up (i) — (use possessive) habit of writing poetry.
  362. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1913 for his Gitanjali, (an appositive). 
  363. I can remember a memorable incident that happened — (post-modify the verb).
  364. It was a — (use a noun adjective) holiday.
  365. My cousin, — (an appositive), was with me.
  366. It was not — (post-modify the noun) river. 
  367. But it was — (use an intensifier) beautiful.
  368. We saw many small boats — (use participle phrase).
  369. Then we came across a — (use a noun adjective) line.
  370. The train was — (post-modify the noun) and many people were hanging.
  371. The train — (use a prepositional phrase) disappeared very quickly.
  372. We became very thrilled — (use an infinitive phrase).
  373. Nelson Mandela — (appositive), is one of the greatest leaders of the world, no doubt.
  374. During — (use article) time of him, the Europeans were separated from the non-Europeans.
  375. It was — (use noun-adjective) policy of racial segregation.
  376. The blacks were subjected to— (use quantifier) sorts of indignities.
  377. They were denied all basic — (pre-modify the noun) rights.
  378. They were in fact aliens in — (use possessive) own country.
  379. The blacks were also treated — (post-modify the verb).
  380. The — (pre-modify the noun) leader vowed to put an end to the inhuman practice.
  381. Unfortunately, — (use demonstrative) great man thrown behind the prison bars.
  382. The great leader fulfilled the goal of liberating — (use possessive) people.
  383. Newspaper plays a very — (pre-modify the noun) role in modern civilization.
  384. Only — (pre-modify the noun) knowledge is not enough in this competitive world.
  385. A newspaper helps a man — (infinitive) his general knowledge.
  386. Besides academic books, one should read newspapers — (post-modify the verb).
  387. Newspaper helps one — (an infinitive) the facts of the world.
  388. — (present participle phrase) regularly, one can be aware of everything.
  389. There are — (pre-modify the noun) kinds of newspapers.
  390. One should select the newspaper — (post-modify the verb).
  391. One should choose the — (premodify the noun) paper.
  392. Whatever the paper is, it — (pre-modify the verb) helps a man.
  393. The newspaper, — (appositive), is a printed record of current event.
  394. It gives us — (use determiner) the important news of home and abroad.
  395. In a word, the newspaper is like— (use article) “mirror” of the world.
  396. The “Indian Gazette” was the— (use determiner) newspaper of the subcontinent. 
  397. “The Samachar Darpon” was the first — (pre-modify the noun) newspaper.
  398. A newspaper is — (pre-modify the adjective) useful to us.
  399. We cannot think of — (use possessive) morning without it.
  400. — (pre-modify the noun) people have different tastes.
  401. So, a newspaper supplies us with— (use determiner) sorts of news.
  402. So, we all should read newspapers — (post-modify the verb).

For inquisitive students

Modifier

Definition: Modify is to change or to alter something. A modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that functions as an adjective or adverb to give extra information about another words or word called the head.

ModifierPre modifierplaced before the head is called a pre modifier
Post modifierplaced after the head is called a post modifier

Look at the following structures

1.      Rules of part of speecha.  Article+adjective+noun                                                      b. Article+adverb+adjective+nounc. Noun- adjective
Noun-adjectives: Noun is a person, place or thing, and an adjective describes a noun. Sometimes we use a noun to describe another noun. The first word is usually a noun but here functions as an adjective modifying the second word.For example, government road accident research centre, city government, article writer, bicycle thief, Sunday picnic, pumpkin pie , news reporter, table tennis.  athletic trainer, race horse,  boat race,  love story, war story, tennis ball,  computer exhibition, bicycle shop, food adulteration, tea table, grammar book, Dhaka University
2.      Appositive: An appositive is a noun or noun phrase placed next to a noun or noun phrase to identify or rename it. Remember that an appositive can be a single word or several words. It is always used with commas.Appositive can be noun or noun phrase.Appositive is placed after a noun or noun phrase.Appositive gives extra information about previous noun or noun phrase.Appositive can be used as subject or object.
Appositive as subjectBonna, my sister, is 17 years old. My mom, a nurse, drives a red car. Kamal, a painter, painted this picture . Mr. Hasan, the principal at my school, wears a tie every day. My best friend, Rana, is moving in with me. Her first teacher, Minu, was a strict person. My friends, the noisiest gang, knocked at my door. Makamum, my eight month-old daughter, is eating noodles. Jerry, your little cat, is not so little any more. My mom, a nurse at the hospital, has to work late sometimes. My friend, Liza is an excellent dancer. The jeans, my favorite pant, need to be washed.Appositive as objectI like Monika, the best actress in our school. I really like my grand father’s horse, Chester. The little boy stood up to John, the biggest liar. The girl in the red dress is Sarah, our best actress. Have you read Brothers, a book by Dean Hughes? I know Rana, the electrical contractor. The apartment had bugs, big brown cockroaches. I travelled to Mexico City, the biggest city in the world.
3.      Nonfinite verb: It does not indicate person, number or tense.Gerund (verb1+ing but noun)             Infinitive (to+verb1 but noun)           Participle (adjective)                                                                                                                     Present Participle (verb 1+ing)                                                                                                                     Past Participle (verb 3)                                                                                                                     Perfect Participle (having+verb3)
Gerund: A gerund is a noun formed from a verb. It functions both as verbs and nouns. Gerunds can be subjects, subject complements, direct/indirect objects, and objects of prepositions.
Subject of the verb= Swimming has been my passion. Eating people is wrong. Hunting tigers is dangerous. Flying makes me nervous. Brushing your teeth is important. Smoking causes lung cancer. Acting is fun. Playing football is disgusting. Walking on the beach is painful.Direct object of the verb= My first love is swimming. She enjoys swimming. I like spending time with friends. She gives swimming all of his energy and time.Object of the preposition= Can you sneeze without opening your mouth? She is good at painting. She avoided him by walking on the opposite side of the road. We arrived in Madrid after driving all night. My father decided against postponing his trip to Hungary. There’s no point in waiting. In spite of missing the train, we arrived on time. He was devoted to swimming.Subject complement of the verb =A subject complement is the adjective, noun, or pronoun that follows a linking verb. The linking verbs are ——am, is, are, was, were, has been, are being, might have been, become, and seem. One of his duties is attending meetings. The hardest thing about learning English is understanding. One of life’s pleasures is having breakfast in bed. What I really like is travelling to other countries. Seeing is believing. Being a student sometimes means spending long ours in the library. Knowledge is learning something everday. Wisdom is letting go of soething everyday. My cat’s favorite activity is sleeping. Her specialty is fixing computers. The dog is not eating enough. My greatest fear is finding a spider in my sleeping bag. His desire in life is traveling around the world.
Participle: A participle is an adjective made from a verb.
Present participle (ending -ing)I ignored the barking dog. I saw a boy riding a bicycle. The crying baby had a wet diaper. The burning log fell off the fire. Smiling, she hugged the panting dog. The sobbing child held his injured knee. He was trapped inside the burning house. Many of his paintings show the setting sun. All existing business models are wrong. I am a working woman. I am learning English.
Past participle (ending -ed, -d, -t, -en, or -n)He walked away from the wrecked car. The red shirt worn by me belongs to my brother. The broken window needed to get repaired quickly. We were sad to see our fallen apple tree after the storm hit. To make the batter, stir the beaten eggs into the flour. Excited about dinner, Happy ran the whole way home. Frightened by the loud sound, the dog hid under the box. Injured during the match, I had to leave the field. The broken glass cut my foot.
Perfect participle (having+verb3)The moon having set, we set out our journey. The sun having set, we reached home. 1. Having delivered the message, he left immediately. Having finished his work, Harry was ready for play. The child, having found its mother, was again happy. Having freed ourselves from our oppressors, let us not oppress others. Having paid his admission fee, Didar came to me. Having improved her English Pia went to London.

4. Relative pronoun/Relative clause

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Re means back and lative means relation

Relative pronoun (who, which, that, what, whom, whose) placed before an adjective clause connects a clause or phrase to a noun or pronoun. 

Relative clauses= Relative clauses start with the relative pronouns. 

subject formobject formpossessive form
WhoWhomWhose
WhichWhichof which
ThatThat 
The cyclist who won the race trained hard. The pants that I bought yesterday are already stained. The four team leaders, whomever the committee selects, will be at tomorrow’s meeting. Biriani, which we eat twice a week, is one of my favorite meals. The book, when it was finally returned, was torn and stained. The store on the corner, where we usually buy all of our art supplies, burned to the ground. The festival, which lasted all day, ended with a banquet. I am looking for someone who can watch my dog while I go on vacation. The police needed details that could help identify the robber. I’d like to take you to a café which serves excellent coffee. I saw the shoes what you bought last week on sale for less this week. The winners, when known, will receive money and other prizes. This is the place where we met. This is the book that everyone is talking about. She wrote to the person whom she had met last month.
5.      W/h clause: It is a subordinate clause that is introduced by one of the w/h words (what, who, which, when, where, why, how). It can function as subjects, objects, or complements.The pronouns are who, whose, whom, which, what, that.         The adverbs are where, when, why, how.
I know where you live. She couldn’t remember who he was. John wondered what was going to happen next. I asked what she wanted. He tried to explain how the accident had happened. She wouldn’t admit what she had done. We tried to tell them what they should do. She reminded me where I had left the car. Do you remember the day when we went to Dhaka. That was the town where I grew up. That might explain why he’s looking unhappy. Let’s consider how we can solve the problem.I couldn’t decide which train I ought to catch. I missed my bus. That’s why I was late. This is where I live. That’s what I thought. Did he say when he would come? Is there any reason why I should stay?
w/h+infinitive  (except ‘why’) Somebody should teach you how to behave. We didn’t know what to do. We will ask when to set off. I don’t understand what to do. She calculated how much to pay on the back of an envelope. I don’t know what to do. We must find out what to do next. I don’t know where to turn for help. Let us decide when to start. We will have to find out how to reach the place. We must remember where to turn off the main road. Do you know what to look for? I will show you how to manage it. Could you tell me where to find a good hotel? Nobody told me what to do. Can anyone suggest where to go for lunch?

6. Determiner: Determiners are words which come at the beginning of the noun phrase. They tell us whether the noun phrase is specific or general. Articles, demonstrative pronoun, possessive pronoun, quantifier, number , ordinal are included in determiner.

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a. Articles —a, an, the 

b.      Demonstrate (verb): to show; to indicate; to point toDemonstrative pronoun (this, that, these, those, such)A demonstrative pronoun represents a thing or things. It takes the place of the noun phrase.This, these =near in distance or time                    That, those=far in distance or time
This is very tasty. I would like those. I am not sure that is how you do it. These are the most comfortable. Could you hand me that? This is crazy. Those belong to Sarah. Could you help me move these? That is not mine. Bring me those. That food smells delicious. This soup is very smelly. You smell that factory from here. These apples smell rotten. Do not paint those fences.
c.      Possessive form
The possessive case is predominantly used for showing possession or ownership.It applies to nouns, pronouns, and adjectives. For example:
Possessive NounsWith nouns, the possessive case is usually shown by preceding it with of or by adding’s (or just ‘) to the end.  Rana’s, Kayes’, boy’s, boys’
Possessive PronounsThe possessive-case pronouns are mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, and theirs.
Possessive AdjectivesThe possessive-case adjectives are my, your, his, her, its, our, and their.
d.       Quantifier: A quantifier is a word or phrase which is used before a noun to indicate the amount or quantity of something.
With Uncountable Nounsmuch/a little/little/very little/a bit /a great deal of/a large amount of/a large quantity of
With Countable Nounsmany/a few/few/very few/a number of/several/a large number of/a great number of/a majority of
With Bothall/enough/more/most/less/least/no/none/not any/some/any/a lot of/lots of/plenty of

e. Numbers: one, two, three, twenty, forty

f. Ordinals: first, second, 1st 2nd, 3rd, last, next, etc

g. Distributive: all, both, half, either, neither, each, every, etc.

h. Difference Words: other, another.

7.      Intensifier:  A word that gives force or emphasis to a statement or to the meaning of verbs adjectives or other adverbs is called intensifiers.
I strongly disagree. It’s extremely hot in Africa. Do you really mean it? It’s fairly interesting. It’s quite calm here. He’s pretty intelligent. These students are rather noisy. I so wanted to buy the dress. She writes poems too often. It’s absolutely amazing. I am a little angry with her. You play card very well.
8.  Pre/post modify the verb= AdverbList of Adverbs: well, ever, never, now, soon, still, then, today, tomorrow, when, yesterday, here, there, quite, rather, too, very, once, just, just now, tonight,  almost, enough, then, often, sometimes, daily, seldom, not, only, adjective + ly etc
9.  Prepositional Phrases: A prepositional phrase starts with a preposition and ends with a noun, pronoun, gerund, or clause, the “object” of the preposition. It functions as an adjective or adverb.Structurepreposition+noun/pronoun/gerund/clause                     preposition+modifier(s) +noun/pronoun/gerund/clause
Commonly used Prepositional Phrases: According to the weather forecast, Across many deserts, After many tries, Amid the confusion, Around the world, Before we start the meeting, Between a rock and a hard place, By the light of the moon, like a beautiful swan , Near the ocean, Of my boss, Off the top, Out the door, Through the looking glass, Throughout the thick forest, To the amusement park
Prepositional Phrases that function as an Adjective: The book with the tattered cover has been read many times. All the passengers aboard the runaway train were frightened. The present inside the big box is mine. Our boss put out a memo regarding the new rule. The clues within the first few chapters will lead to the murderer. His is only one voice among many, but it will be heard.Prepositional Phrases that function as Adverbs:  Racing toward the finish line, Sarah realized she just might win. My shopping list needs to be put into my purse. Without a GPS, we will lose our way. Until today, I had never heard that. The balloon drifted up the stairs. Put the fresh flowers upon a high shelf. Despite warnings, she tried to ski down Devil’s Run. Against all odds, our team won the tournament. The tiger crept slowly over the grass. We will order pizza during halftime.
10. Adverbial phrase: It is a group of words that functions as an adverb in a sentence. That is, it modifies a verb, adjective, adverb, clause, or the sentence as a whole. Adverbial phrases often feature an adverb being modified by other elements, but not always.For examples: very quickly, in a while, just a bit, surprisingly well, at the fairground, slightly close, as soon as possibleHere are some examples of adverb phrases being used in sentences:She rode her bike very hastily.The farmers worked like a single unit. The surf at the beach was coming in extremely quickly. After they woke up, they packed up their things and then went on a hike. He read the restaurant’s menu rather slowly.
11. Adverbial ClauseIt is a dependent clause that acts as an adverb in the sentence. Adverb clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions. Unlike an adjective clausein which the introductory word serves as the subject, the subordinating conjunction does not serve as the subject. The subordinating conjunction is often an adverb itself. ExampleBecause he has a college degree, he got a great job. When the storm started, she was at the store. Bob wore the coat that I gave himWhether you like it or not, you have to go to bed now. She likes the red car more than her husband doesIf you pay your bills, you will have a good credit score. Unless you run fast, you will miss the bus. So that she would have a tan for her vacation, she went to a tanning salon. Marty kept his schedule open, in case of emergenciesBecause he loved her, he didn’t believe she had an affair. Once they saw the car coming, the birds flew away from the street. Although she has a business degree, she is working as a retail clerk. You must keep practicing the etude until you get it rightIn order to have six-pack abs, he works out at the gym. As we bought the tickets, the overture was beginning.

12. Compounds: Compoundingis the process of combining two words to create a new word (commonly a noun, verb, or adjective). Compounds are written sometimes as one word (sunglasses), sometimes as two hyphenatedwords (life-threatening), and sometimes as two separate words (football stadium).

13. Compounding is the most common type of word-formation in English.

Compound elementsExamplesCompound elementsExamples
noun + nounBedroom, water tank, motorcycle, printer cartridgeverb + nounwashing machine, driving licence, swimming pool
noun + verbRainfall, haircut, train-spottingadverb + nounOnlooker, bystander
noun + adverbhanger-on, passer-byadjective + verbdry-cleaning, public speaking
verb + adverbLookout, take-off, drawbackadjective + nounGreenhouse, software, redhead
  adverb + verbOutput, overthrow, upturn

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